HMML Namespace

HMML Authority Description Schema

This ontology defines the classes and properties utilized within the HMML Authority File (HAF) linked open data export formats. HMML authorities are designed to support the historical identification and differentiation of persons, organizations, families, places, and works.

The HAF schema makes use of linked open data principles to describe entities in terms of relationships. When possible, the data has been mapped to several of the most prominent and stable linked data namespaces: SKOS, schema.org, MADS/RDF, and Dublin Core. This HMML namespace supplements these where necessary. It is described here as an OWL ontology.

.ttl file of the HAF mapped linked data

.ttl file of the HMML Namespace


Classes

Class: Agent

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#Agent

Disjoint with: hmml:Place, hmml:Work

Equivalent Class: dct:Agent

SubClass Of: schema:Thing

Comment: An agent is any entity capable of acting in the world. An agent is either an individual person, a family, or a corporate body.

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Class: CreativeWork

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#CreativeWork

Disjoint with: hmml:Agent, hmml:Place

Equivalent Class: schema:CreativeWork

SubClass Of: schema:Thing

Comment: This is an assemblage of concepts and ideas into an artistic or intellectual expression as the product of one or more agents' intellectual process; examples include books, essays, poems, musical compositions, performances, etc. Notably, a work is the concept of that artistic expression, rather than a particular expression or manifestation of it. For instance, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is a work, but any physical edition of it is a manifestation of that work. Works can be simple or complex, short or long; they may include other works. Note that this database is an aid to identifying works, rather than an attempt to catalog them. Therefore, properties will indicate information useful for citation and identification, not full description.

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Class: Entity

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#Entity

Equivalent Class: schema:Thing

SubClass Of: owl:Thing

Comment: This class represents everything: all people, places, things, concepts, etc., within the universe of this ontology. It is the superclass for everything. Its purpose within the ontology is to be associated with properties for administrative data, identification, and notes that can also be applied to all of its subclasses.

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Class: Expression

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#Expression

SubClass Of: schema:Thing

Comment: This is a particular expression of a work, which will usually be a translation into a particular language.

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Class: Family

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#Family

Disjoint with: hmml:Person, hmml:Organization

SubClass Of: hmml:Agent

Comment: A family is 'Two or more persons related by birth, marriage, adoption, civil union, or similar legal status, or who otherwise present themselves as a family.' (RDA 8.1.2) For HMML's purposes, this will commonly represent historical families of note for the manuscript traditions collected by repositories. For many of these families, distinguishing information beyond surname will be required for disambiguation (such as associated location, dates, etc.).

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Class: Organization

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#Organization

Disjoint with: hmml:Person, hmml:Family

Equivalent Class: schema:Organization

SubClass Of: hmml:Agent

Comment: This represents any group of persons or organizations, such as an organization, office, or corporate entity, which is identified by a particular name and can act as a unit. Some of these will be obvious (e.g., a religious house or university, a business or company, a government or governmental department, or a scholarly/social organization), and others will be less so (e.g., an office, like the Pope, which exists as a continuing corporate entity separate from the individual person who holds that office; an ad hoc event like a conference or council; a vessel, such as a ship).

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Class: Person

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#Person

Disjoint with: hmml:Organization, hmml:Family

Equivalent Class: schema:Person

SubClass Of: hmml:Agent

Comment: This represents any individual person, whether ‘real’ or fictional, to whom one or more identities might be assigned. This class is designed not to capture the physical and epistemological personhood of individuals and all the events of their lives, but rather to disambiguate them from other persons, represent their biographical information, and connect them to other people, places, and works.

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Class: Place

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#Place

Disjoint with: hmml:Agent, hmml:CreativeWork

Equivalent Class: schema:Place

SubClass Of: schema:Thing

Comment: A place is the physical embodiment of a location, usually (but not always) geographically fixed on the surface of the earth. It may reference somewhere that is physically real (e.g., Mali) or fictional (e.g. Narnia). A place may reference a geographical feature of the physical world (e.g., a mountain, lake, river, etc.), an object or location entity culturally produced by humans (a city, house, monument, building, landmark, etc.), or a mapped area defined as associated with a culture or corporate body (e.g., a country, state, county, province, county, etc.). Some places continue to exist, while others existed historically but have since been lost, destroyed, renamed, or combined/reimagined as parts of other places.

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Properties

Property: alternateIdentity

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#alternateIdentity

Range: schema:Person

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This property relates a person to another identity they claim, such as a pseudonym. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: alternateIncipit

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#alternateIncipit

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: hmml:Expression

Comment: This is an alternate initial line of the text, in this version/language (perhaps from different manuscripts).

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Property: associatedLanguage

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#associatedLanguage

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Thing

Comment: This property can be used to indicate a relationship between any entity and an associated language. If a more specific property is available (e.g., knowsLanguage, inLanguage, originalLanguage), use it instead.

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Property: associatedName

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#associatedName

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

Comment: This is any agent (person, organization, or family) with whom the work is associated. Always use a more specific property if it is appropriate.

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Property: associatedOrganization

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#associatedOrganization

Range: schema:Organization

Domain: hmml:Family

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This property allows a family to be related to an organization they founded, supported, etc. For example, noble families often found or support family foundations or confraternities.

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ReflexiveProperty: associatedWith

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#associatedWith

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: hmml:Agent

Comment: This property may be used to indicate any other association or relationship with any agent (person, corporate body, or family). When a more specific relationship applies, it should be used instead.

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Property: attributedTo

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#attributedTo

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedName

Comment: This indicates a tentative link to an agent who may be the author of the work, but it may be incorrect.

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Property: century

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#century

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Thing

Comment: This is the century assigned to an entity, primarily for search purposes.

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Property: character

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#character

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedName

Comment: This is a fictional agent connected to a creative work.

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Property: coatOfArms

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#coatOfArms

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Thing

Comment: This is a text description of the relevant coat of arms.

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ReflexiveProperty: colleague

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#colleague

Range: schema:Person

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This property relates a person to a fellow member of a profession, staff, or academic faculty. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: commentator

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#commentator

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedName

Comment: This is the person, family, or organization who has written a commentary on this work. This will be particularly useful for tracing medieval scholarship.

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Property: commissioner

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#commissioner

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedName

Comment: This is the person, family, or organization who commissioned a creative work.

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Property: coreTextAuthor

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#coreTextAuthor

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedName

Comment: This is the author of the creative work or 'core text' that the creative work critiques, analyzes, or discusses. For example, a commentary on a major religious treatise would cite the author of the original treatise, of which text may be included, as a coreTextAuthor.

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Property: corporateType

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#corporateType

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Organization

Comment: This describes the type of corporate body being described. For example: institution, repository, ship, organization, church, musical group, etc. When possible, the term will be taken from the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) controlled vocabulary.

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Property: country

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#country

Range: schema:Place

Domain: hmml:Agent

SubProperty Of: madsrdf:associatedLocale

Comment: This is the country with which agents are associated, sometimes defined as their nationality, but it may also include countries with which the individual is heavily associated, even if they never resided there as a citizen. Such determinations can be complicated when approaching historical subject matter due to shifting names, borders, and affiliations. This term may be used to apply to either 1) modern countries, to associate an agent with a well-understood geographical region in contemporary terms, or 2) historic nations/countries/political entities, to record historical affiliations, if desired. For example, one individual may be assigned to both 'Iran' and 'Persia,'' for increased findability.

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Property: datePublished

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#datePublished

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

Comment: This is the date on which the creative work was originally published.

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Property: dedicatee

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#dedicatee

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedName

Comment: This is the person, family, or organization to whom a creative work is dedicated.

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Property: descendantFamily

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#descendantFamily

Range: hmml:Family

Domain: hmml:Family

Inverse Of: hmml:descendantFamilyOf

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This relates a family to a family that is its descendant. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: descendantFamilyOf

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#descendantFamilyOf

Range: hmml:Family

Domain: hmml:Family

Inverse Of: hmml:descendantFamily

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This relates a family to a family of which it is a descendant. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: expressedAs

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#expressedAs

Range: hmml:Expression

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

Comment: This links the work to its expressions, for instance, its translations into multiple languages.

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Property: family

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#family

Range: schema:Family

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This property relates a person to a family to which they belong, or with which they identify. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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ReflexiveProperty: fellowStudent

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#fellowStudent

Range: schema:Person

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This property relates a person who is a student to another student who studied with or attended the same school with them. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: founder

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#founder

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:Organization

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This is an agent who originally founded the corporate body. Note that sometimes an organization is founded by a person, a family, another organization, or a combination of these.

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ReflexiveProperty: friend

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#friend

Range: schema:Person

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This property relates a person to another person publicly acknowledged as a friend or acquaintance. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: funder

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#funder

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:Organization

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This is an agent that supports (sponsors) something through some kind of financial contribution.

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Property: genealogy

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#genealogy

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: hmml:Family

Comment: This will be used for families as an open note to describe the genealogy of families.

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Property: genreForm

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#genreForm

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

Comment: This describes the genre or form of the work, as taken from the HMML controlled vocabulary, derives from the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus and the Rare Books and Manuscripts Section (RBMS) of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL).

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Property: geo

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#geo

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Place

Comment: These are the associated geographic coordinates of the place, using the latitude, longitude format, as in: 9.024325, 38.749226.

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Property: graduateOf

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#graduateOf

Range: schema:Organization

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: hmml:studentAt

Comment: This relates a person to an institution or faculty that granted an academic degree to a person. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: hasOccupation

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#hasOccupation

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Person

Comment: This is the profession or occupation of the person, in very general terms (e.g., 'University professors' or 'Teacher,'' with more specific details about the affiliation appearing elsewhere). When possible, the term will be taken from the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) controlled vocabulary.

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Property: hereditaryTitle

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#hereditaryTitle

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: hmml:Family

Comment: For noble families, this is the title that is associated with that family line.

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Property: incipit

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#incipit

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: hmml:Expression

Comment: This is the most canonically recognized initial line of the text, in this version/language.

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Property: ism

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#ism

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: hmml:Person

SubProperty Of: rdfs:label

Comment: Used for Arabic names, this property indicates the given name, a 'personal, proper name given shortly after birth,'' such as Muḥammad or Alī.

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Property: kunyah

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#kunyah

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: rdfs:label

Comment: Used for Arabic names, this property indicates an appellation, an honorific name that indicates parenthood, such as 'Abū Dā’ūd' (father of Dā’ūd) or 'Umm Dā’ūd' (mother of Dā’ūd).

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Property: laqab

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#laqab

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: rdfs:label

Comment: Used for Arabic names, this property indicates a descriptive epithet, which is 'a combination of words making up a byname or epithet, usually religious, relating to nature, descriptive of some admirable quality the person had,' such as 'al-Rashīd' (the rightly guided).

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Property: misattributedTo

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#misattributedTo

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedName

Comment: This indicates a typical attribution to an agent who has sometimes been considered the author of the work, but it is definitely incorrect.

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Property: museumDisplayName

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#museumDisplayName

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: hmml:Agent

SubProperty Of: rdfs:label

Comment: This is the display name, used in vHMML Museum, for an agent. An agent is any entity capable of acting in the world. An agent is either an individual person, a family, or a corporate body. Note that this name form follows slightly different conventions, more applicable in the museum world and usually following Getty policies. It also allows a broader range of unicode characters.

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Property: nasab

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#nasab

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: rdfs:label

Comment: Used for Arabic names, this property indicates a 'patronymic or a series of patronymics that designate one individual as the son or daughter of someone,' such as 'ibn Muḥammad' (son of Muḥammad) or 'bint Muḥammad' (daughter of Muḥammad).

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Property: nativeScriptPrefName

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#nativeScriptPrefName

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Thing

SubProperty Of: rdfs:label

Comment: This is the preferred native script version of the preferred label, and is used to standardize the native script. Variants in native script will be recorded as alternate names.

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Property: nisbah

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#nisbah

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: rdfs:label

Comment: Used for Arabic names, this property indicates a surname attributing some quality to a person, such as an occupation, descent from a tribe or family lineage, or geographical affiliation.

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Property: officerOf

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#officerOf

Range: schema:Organization

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: schema:affiliation, hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This relates a person holding an office in or commanding a corporate body to that corporate body. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: originalLanguage

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#originalLanguage

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

Comment: This property describes the original language of a creative work, not translations.

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Property: patron

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#patron

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedName

Comment: This is the person, family, or organization who paid for a manuscript work to be produced.

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Property: placeType

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#placeType

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Place

Comment: This property assigns a descriptive term to a place, describing as a certain geographic entity, such it as a city, province, country, continent, etc. When possible, the term will be taken from the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) controlled vocabulary.

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Property: predecessorOrganization

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#predecessorOrganization

Range: schema:Organization

Domain: schema:Organization

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This represents the corporate body that preceded the described corporate body. For instance, its name may have changed, or it may have branched off from another organization, etc.

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Property: publicationHistory

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#publicationHistory

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

Comment: This is the free-text description of the work's publication history. This will typically be designed to help with identification, rather than providing a full, detailed bibliographic history.

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Property: realIdentity

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#realIdentity

Range: schema:Person

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This property relates a pseudonymous person to their real identity. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: relatedWork

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#relatedWork

Range: hmml:CreativeWork

Domain: schema:CreativeWork

Comment: This indicates a generic relationship between two works. Always use a more specific term, if applicable.

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Property: religiousName

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#religiousName

Range: rdfs:Literal

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: rdfs:label

Comment: This is a name given to a person for a religious purpose, such as upon conversion, baptism, confirmation, monastic profession, ordination as a priest/bishop/pope, etc.

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Property: sponsorOf

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#sponsorOf

Range: schema:Organization

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: schema:affiliation, hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This relates a person sponsoring a corporate body to that corporate body. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: student

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#student

Range: schema:Person

Domain: schema:Person

Inverse Of: hmml:teacher

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This property relates a person to the students whom they taught. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: studentAt

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#studentAt

Range: schema:Organization

Domain: schema:Person

SubProperty Of: schema:affiliation, hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This relates a person to an educational institution that provides instruction to a person. Graduation is not necessary. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: successorOrganization

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#successorOrganization

Range: schema:Organization

Domain: schema:Organization

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This represents the corporate body that succeeded the described corporate body. For instance, its name may have changed, or it may have branched off from another organization, etc.

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Property: teacher

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#teacher

Range: schema:Person

Domain: schema:Person

Inverse Of: hmml:student

SubProperty Of: hmml:associatedWith

Comment: This property relates a person to a teacher with whom they studied. This is a relationship designator from the Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging standard.

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Property: translator

URI: https://hmml.org/ontology/#translator

Range: hmml:Agent

Domain: hmml:Expression

Comment: This is the translator of a creative work.

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